Dry Eyes

The following studies evaluate the role of blue light exposure in ocular surface disease and dry eyes, which cause ocular discomfort and blurred vision.



The “Quarantine Dry Eye”: The Lockdown for Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Its Implications for Ocular Surface Health.

N.M. Napoli PE, Fossarello M. , Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021;14:1629-1636, 2021. 14: p. 1629-1636. https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S277067




Digital eye strain in the era of COVID-19 pandemic: An emerging public health threat.

S. Bhattacharya, S.M. Saleem and A. Singh, Indian journal of ophthalmology, 2020. 68(8): p. 1709-1710. 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1782_20


Changes in Distribution of Dry Eye Diagnostic Status Among Visual Display Terminal Workers According to the Revised Criteria of the Asia Dry Eye Society.

R. Yamanishi, M. Uchino, Y. Uchino, M. Kawashima, et al., Cornea, 2020. 39(5): p. 578-583. 10.1097/ico.0000000000002218




Prevalence of dry eye in video display terminal users: a cross-sectional Caucasian study in Italy.

G.C.M. Rossi, L. Scudeller, F. Bettio, G.M. Pasinetti, et al., International Ophthalmology, 2019. 39(6): p. 1315-1322. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10792-018-0947-6


Dry Eye in Video Display Terminal Users.

G.C.M. Rossi, European Ophthalmic Review, 2019. 13(2)(Epub). https://www.touchophthalmology.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/16/2019/12/Rossi_epub.pdf


Tear film change and ocular symptoms after reading printed book and electronic book: a crossover study.

P. Prabhasawat, W. Pinitpuwadol, D. Angsriprasert, P. Chonpimai, et al., Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, 2019. 63(2): p.137-144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10384-018-00648-1


Protective effects of blue light-blocking shades on phototoxicity in human ocular surface cells.

Niwano Y, Iwasawa A, Tsubota K, et al.  BMJ Open Ophthalmology 2019. 4:e000217.  https://bmjophth.bmj.com/content/bmjophth/4/1/e000217.full.pdf


Implication of Melanopsin and Trigeminal Neural Pathways in Blue Light Photosensitivity in vivo.

V. Marek, E. Reboussin, J. Dégardin-Chicaud, A. Charbonnier, et al., Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2019. 13: p. 497. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnins.2019.00497


Ocular and visual discomfort associated with smartphones, tablets and computers: what we do and do not know.

S. Jaiswal, L. Asper, J. Long, A. Lee, et al., Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2019. 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1111/cxo.12851


Visual implications of digital device usage in school children: a cross-sectional study.

P. Ichhpujani, R.B. Singh, W. Foulsham, S. Thakur, et al., BMC Ophthalmol, 2019. 19(1): p. 76-84. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-019-1082-5


What We Know About the Epidemiology of Dry Eye Disease in JapanEpidemiology of Dry Eye Disease in Japan.

M. Uchino, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2018. 59(14): p. DES1-DES6. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-23491





Effect of Ambient Light Exposure on Ocular Fatigue during Sleep.

Y.W.N. Suh, K. H.Ahn, S. E.Oh, J., J Korean Med Sci, 2018. 33(38): p. e248. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2018.33.e248


Variations of dry eye disease prevalence by age, sex and geographic characteristics in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

P.X. Song, W.Wang, M.Chang, X.Wang, J.Jin, S.Wang, J.Wei, W.Rudan, I., J Glob Health, 2018. 8(2): p. 020503. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.08.020503


Assessment of Dry Eye Symptoms: Current Trends and Issues of Dry Eye Questionnaires in JapanReview of Dry Eye Questionnaires.

A. Shiraishi, Yuri, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2018. 59(14): p. DES23-DES28. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-24570


Digital eye strain: prevalence, measurement and amelioration.

A.L.W. Sheppard, James S., BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 2018. 3(1). http://bmjophth.bmj.com/content/3/1/e000146.abstract


Approach to Dry Eye in Video Display Terminal Workers (Basic Science).

S. Nakamura, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2018. 59(14): p. DES130-DES137. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-23762


Blue light phototoxicity toward human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells in basal and hyperosmolar conditions.

V. Marek, S. Mélik-Parsadaniantz, T. Villette, F. Montoya, et al., Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2018. 126: p. 27-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.07.012


Maximum blink interval is associated with tear film breakup time: A new simple, screening test for dry eye disease.

T.I. Inomata, M.Hiratsuka, Y.Fujimoto, K.Okumura, Y.Shiang, T.Murakami, A. , Scientific Reports, 2018. 8:13443(2045-2322 (Electronic)). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31814-7


Management of digital eye strain.

C. Coles-Brennan, AnnaYoung, Graeme, Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2018. 102(1): p. 18-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/cxo.12798


The influences of smartphone use on the status of the tear film and ocular surface.

J.H. Choi, YingKim, Seon HoJin, RujunKim, Yung HuiChoi, WonYou, In CheonYoon, Kyung Chul, PLOS ONE, 2018. 13(10): p. e0206541. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206541


Visual function, digital behavior and the vision performance index.

S.F. Ahmed, K.C. McDermott, W.K. Burge, I.I.K. Ahmed, et al., Clinical Ophthalmology, 2018. 12: p. 2553-2561. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S187131





New Perspectives on Dry Eye Definition and Diagnosis: A Consensus Report by the Asia Dry Eye Society.

K. Tsubota, N. Yokoi, J. Shimazaki, H. Watanabe, et al., The Ocular Surface, 2017. 15(1): p. 65-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtos.2016.09.003


Neuro-behavioral Effects of Luminance Level on Visual Performance and Discomfort with High Dynamic Range Displays.

S.-n. Yang, M. Jang and J. Liu, VPI Research, 2017. 6. https://commons.paciCcu.edu/verg/6


Evaluate Fatigue of Blue Light Influence Under General LCD, Nice blue LCD Displays.

Y.L. Chen, Y.H. Zhang, L. Jia, Y. Yong, et al., SID, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdtp.11902


TFOS Dry Eye WorkShop II (TFOS DEWS II™) 2017.

Tear Film & Ocular Surface Society Boston, MA: Ocular Surface Journal. http://www.tfosdewsreport.org/report-tfos_dews_ii_report/36_36/en/


TFOS DEWS II Report Executive Summary.

J.P. Craig, J.D. Nelson, D.T. Azar, C. Belmonte, et al., The Ocular Surface, 2017. 15(4): p. 802-812. https://www.tearfilm.org/dettreports-tfos_dews_ii_report/32_30/eng/


Visual Fatigue Induced by Viewing a Tablet Computer with a High-resolution Display.

D.J. Kim, C.Y. Lim, N. Gu and C.Y. Park, Korean J Ophthalmol, 2017. 31(5): p. 388-393. https://doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2016.0095





Computer vision syndrome (a.k.a. digital eye strain).

M. Rosenfield, Optometry in Practice, 2016. 17(1): p. 1-10. https://www.college-optometrists.org/oip-resource/computer-vision-syndrome–a-k-a–digital-eye-strain.html


Impact of Dry Eye Disease on Work Productivity, and Patients’ Satisfaction With Over-the-Counter Dry Eye Treatments.

K.K. Nichols, J. Bacharach, E. Holland, T. Kislan, et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2016. 57(7): p. 2975-82. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.16-19419


Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study.

J.H. Moon, K.W. Kim and N.J. Moon, BMC Ophthalmology, 2016. 16(1): p. 188. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-016-0364-4


Economic and Humanistic Burden of Dry Eye Disease in Europe, North America, and Asia: A Systematic Literature Review.

M. McDonald, D.A. Patel, M.S. Keith and S.J. Snedecor, The Ocular Surface, 2016. 14(2): p. 144-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtos.2015.11.002


Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity.

M. Kaido, I. Toda, T. Oobayashi, M. Kawashima, et al., PLOS ONE, 2016. 11(4): p. e0152936. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152936


Prevalence of dry eye disease in visual display terminal workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

R. Courtin, B. Pereira, G. Naughton, A. Chamoux, et al., BMJ Open, 2016. 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009675





Prevalence of asthenopia in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

M.A.P. Vilela, L.C. Pellanda, A.G. Fassa and V.D. Castagno, Jornal de Pediatria, 2015. 91(4): p. 320-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2014.10.008


Importance of Tear Film Instability in Dry Eye Disease in Office Workers Using Visual Display Terminals: The Osaka Study.

N. Yokoi, M. Uchino, Y. Uchino, M. Dogru, et al., American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2015. 159(4): p. 748-754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2014.12.019

More Screen Time = More Digital Eye Strain, Increased electronic device use has multiplied the potential stresses on the ocular system.

L. Hall and C. Coles-Brennan, in Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015. p. 38-40. https://www.clspectrum.com/issues/2015/june-2015/more-screen-time-more-digital-eye-strain


Screening of dry eye disease in visual display terminal workers during occupational health examinations: The Moriguchi study.

M. Kawashima, M. Yamatsuji, N. Yokoi, M. Fukui, et al., Journal of occupational health, 2015. 57(3): p. 253-258. https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.14-0243-OA





Dry Eye Disease and Work Productivity Loss in Visual Display Users: The Osaka Study.

M. Uchino, Y. Uchino, M. Dogru, M. Kawashima, et al., American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2014. 157(2): p. 294-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2013.10.014

Dry eye disease: A review of diagnostic approaches and treatments.

H. Lin and S.C. Yiu, Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, 2014. 28(3): p. 173-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjopt.2014.06.002

Does Blue Light Filter Improve Computer Vision Syndrome in Patients with Dry Eye?

S.-T.C. Hong-Ming Cheng, Liu Hsiang-Jui, Ching-Ying Cheng, Life Sci J 2014. 11(6): p. 612-615. http://www.lifesciencesite.com





Oxidative Stress Induced Inflammation Initiates Functional Decline of Tear Production.

Y. Uchino, T. Kawakita, M. Miyazawa, T. Ishii, et al., PLOS ONE, 2012. 7(10): p. e45805. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045805




Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments.

M. Rosenfield, Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 2011. 31(502–515). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00834.x





Impact of computer use on children’s vision.

N. Kozeis, Hippokratia, 2009. 13(4): p. 230-231. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776336/


The role of oxidative stress and inflammation in dry eye disease.

M. Dogru, T. Wakamatsu, T. Kojima, Y. Matsumoto, et al., Cornea, 2009. 28(SUPPL. 1). https://doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0b013e3181ae8689





The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007).

Ocul Surf. , 2007. 5: p. 75-92. https://www.tearfilm.org/dewsreport/index.html





Eye discomfort and work with visual display terminals.

U.O. Bergqvist and B.G. Knave, Scand J Work Environ Health, 1994. 20. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.1432