Children’s Eyes & Health



Prevalence and risk factor assessment of digital eye strain among children using online e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Digital eye strain among kids (DESK study-1).

A. Mohan, P. Sen, C. Shah, E. Jain, et al., Indian journal of ophthalmology, 2021. 69(1): p. 140-144.




Annual Research Review: Adolescent mental health in the digital age: facts, fears, and future directions.

C.L. Odgers and M.R. Jensen, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2020.




Effects of screentime on the health and well-being of children and adolescents: a systematic review of reviews.

N. Stiglic and R.M. Viner, BMJ open, 2019. 9(1): p. e023191-e023191.


Ocular and visual discomfort associated with smartphones, tablets and computers: what we do and do not know.

S. Jaiswal, L. Asper, J. Long, A. Lee, et al., Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2019. 0(0).


Visual implications of digital device usage in school children: a cross-sectional study.

P. Ichhpujani, R.B. Singh, W. Foulsham, S. Thakur, et al., BMC Ophthalmol, 2019. 19(1): p. 76-84.


Poor sleep and adolescent obesity risk: a narrative review of potential mechanisms.

K.M. Duraccio, K.N. Krietsch, M.L. Chardon, T.R. Van Dyk, et al., Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics, 2019. 10: p. 117-130.




An update on adolescent sleep: New evidence informing the perfect storm model.

S.J.W. Crowley, Amy R.Tarokh, LeilaCarskadon, Mary A., Journal of Adolescence, 2018. 67: p. 55-65.


Research progress about the effect and prevention of blue light on eyes.

Z.C.Z. Zhao, Y.Tan, G.Li, J., Int J Ophthalmol, 2018. 11(12): p. 1999-2003.


Evolutionary medicine: Why does prevalence of myopia significantly increase?

E. Long, Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 2018. 2018(1): p. 151-152.


Digital eye strain: prevalence, measurement and amelioration.

A.L.W. Sheppard, James S., BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 2018. 3(1).


Opinion on Potential Risks to Human Health of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).

Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks SCHEER, 2018, European Commission


Blue Light Hazard: are exposure limit values protective enough for newborn infants?

S. Point, Radioprotection, 2018. 53(3): p. 219-224.


Light correlated color temperature and task switching performance in preschool-age children: Preliminary insights.

L.E.L. Hartstein, Monique K.Berthier, Neil E., PLOS ONE, 2018. 13(8): p. e0202973.


Unrestricted evening use of light-emitting tablet computers delays self-selected bedtime and disrupts circadian timing and alertness.

E.D.D. Chinoy, Jeanne F.Czeisler, Charles A., Physiological Reports, 2018. 6(10): p. e13692.


The increasing prevalence of myopia and high myopia among high school students in Fenghua city, eastern China: a 15-year population-based survey.

M. Chen, AiminZhang, LinaWang, WeiChen, XinyiYu, XiaoningWang, Kaijun, BMC ophthalmology, 2018. 18(1): p. 159-159.




Global rise of potential health hazards caused by blue light-induced circadian disruption in modern aging societies.

M. Hatori, C. Gronfier, R.N. Van Gelder, P.S. Bernstein, et al., npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2017. 3(1): p. 9.


Role of short-wavelength filtering lenses in delaying myopia progression and amelioration of asthenopia in juveniles.

H.-L. Zhao, JinYu, JieXu, Hai-Ming, International journal of ophthalmology, 2017. 10(8): p. 1261-1267.


The Evolving Science of Blue Light

G. Morgan, in Technical White Paper, TechShieldBlue, Editor. 2017, VSP Optics Group.


Relationship between Mobile Phone Addiction and the Incidence of Poor and Short Sleep among Korean Adolescents: a Longitudinal Study of the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey.

J.E. Lee, S.-I. Jang, Y.J. Ju, W. Kim, et al., J Korean Med Sci, 2017. 32(7): p. 1166-1172.


The use of entertainment and communication technologies before sleep could affect sleep and weight status: a population-based study among children.

N. Dube, K. Khan, S. Loehr, Y. Chu, et al., International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2017. 14(1): p. 97.




Low-energy light bulbs, computers, tablets and the blue light hazard.

J.B. O’Hagan, M. Khazova and L.L.A. Price, Eye, 2016. 30: p. 230.


Disruption of adolescents’ circadian clock: The vicious circle of media use, exposure to light at night, sleep loss and risk behaviors.

Y. Touitou, D. Touitou and A. Reinberg, Journal of Physiology-Paris, 2016. 110(4, Part B): p. 467-479.


Violet Light Exposure Can Be a Preventive Strategy Against Myopia Progression.

H. Torii, T. Kurihara, Y. Seko, K. Negishi, et al., EBioMedicine, 2016. 15: p. 210-219.


Computer vision syndrome (a.k.a. digital eye strain).

M. Rosenfield, Optometry in Practice, 2016. 17(1): p. 1-10.–a-k-a–digital-eye-strain.html


Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study.

J.H. Moon, K.W. Kim and N.J. Moon, BMC Ophthalmology, 2016. 16(1): p. 188.


National Trends in the Prevalence and Treatment of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults.

R. Mojtabai, M. Olfson and B. Han, Pediatrics, 2016. 138(6): p. e20161878.


Adolescent Sleep and the Impact of Technology Use Before Sleep on Daytime Function.

A.E.E. Johansson, M.A. Petrisko and E.R. Chasens, Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, 2016. 31(5): p. 498-504.





Light at night pollution of the internal clock, a public health issue.

Y. Touitou, Bull Acad Natl Med, 2015. 199(7): p. 1081-1098.


Prevalence of asthenopia in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

M.A.P. Vilela, L.C. Pellanda, A.G. Fassa and V.D. Castagno, Jornal de Pediatria, 2015. 91(4): p. 320-325.


Blue Blocker Glasses as a Countermeasure for Alerting Effects of Evening Light-Emitting Diode Screen Exposure in Male Teenagers.

S. van der Lely, S. Frey, C. Garbazza, A. Wirz-Justice, et al., Journal of Adolescent Health, 2015. 56(1): p. 113-119.


Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

L. Hale and S. Guan, Sleep Med Rev, 2015. 21: p. 50-8.


Bigger, Brighter, Bluer-Better? Current Light-Emitting Devices – Adverse Sleep Properties and Preventative Strategies.

P. Gringras, B. Middleton, D.J. Skene and V.L. Revell, Front Public Health, 2015. 3: p. 233.


Children and electronic media: How much is too much?

J. da Silva, in American Psychological Association 2015.


Increased Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light in Early/Mid-Puberty.

S.J. Crowley, S.W. Cain, A.C. Burns, C. Acebo, et al., J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2015. 100(4067-4073).


The 21st Century Child: Increased Technology Use May Lead to Future Eye Health and Vision Issues.

American Optometric Association.




Association between electronic media use and sleep habits: an eight-day follow-up study.

V. Kubiszewski, R. Fontaine, E. Rusch and E. Hazouard, International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 2014. 19(3): p. 395-407.


Blue Light and Eye Damage.

G.W. Good. 2014, American optometric Association.


Associations between specific technologies and adolescent sleep quantity, sleep quality, and parasomnias.

T. Arora, E. Broglia, G.N. Thomas and S. Taheri, Sleep Med, 2014. 15(2): p. 240-7.




Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye?

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, et al., Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 2011. 30(4): p. 239-257.




Age-related changes in the transmission properties of the human lens and their relevance to circadian entrainment.

L. Kessel, L. J.H., K. Herbst, T.V. Andersen, et al., J. Cataract Refract. Surg., 2010. 36: p. 308-312.


What’s in a Color? The Unique Human Health Effect of Blue Light.

D.C. Holzman, Environmental Health Perspectives, 2010. 118(1): p. A22-A27.




Impact of computer use on children’s vision.

N. Kozeis, Hippokratia, 2009. 13(4): p. 230-231.


Retinopathy of prematurity – 3.3. Damage-weighted retinal irradiance

H.P. Aleff. 2009 [cited A ccess 2009; Available from:


Light damage revisited: converging evidence, diverging views?

C. Remé, J. Reinboth, M. Clausen and F. Hafezi, Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 1996. 234(1): p. 2-11.

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