Digital Eye Strain


Prevalence and risk factor assessment of digital eye strain among children using online e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Digital eye strain among kids (DESK study-1).

A. Mohan, P. Sen, C. Shah, E. Jain, et al., Indian journal of ophthalmology, 2021. 69(1): p. 140-144.


The Effect of Using Blue Light Filter Feature on Smartphones with Asthenopia Occurrence.

A.V. Wiryawan, M. Maharani, T.A. Kesoema and R. Prihatningtias, 2021, 2021. 2(1): p. 6. 10.14710/dimj.v2i1.9761




Asthenopia Among University Students: The Eye of the Digital Generation.

R.I. Touma Sawaya, N. El Meski, J.B. Saba, C. Lahoud, et al., Journal of family medicine and primary care, 2020. 9(8): p. 3921-3932. 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_340_20


Effect of Ultra-high-definition Television on Ocular Surface and Fatigue.

H. Kim, H.K. Yang, J.-M. Seo, S. Lee, et al., Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO, 2020. 34(5): p. 367-374. 10.3341/kjo.2020.0032


Digital eye strain in the era of COVID-19 pandemic: An emerging public health threat.

S. Bhattacharya, S.M. Saleem and A. Singh, Indian journal of ophthalmology, 2020. 68(8): p. 1709-1710. 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1782_20


The Impact of Internet and Videogaming Addiction on Adolescent Vision: A Review of the Literature.

I. Mylona, E.S. Deres, G.-D.S. Dere, I. Tsinopoulos, et al., Frontiers in public health, 2020. 8: p. 63-63. 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00063


Is the blue light filter for spectacles and intraocular lenses helpful in improving ocular health? A systematic review of the literature.

L.A. Domínguez-Salgado, S.I. Chávez-Orta, M.Á. Duque-Rodríguez, J.J. Franco-Contreras, et al., Rev, Mex. Oftalm. (Eng.), 2020. 94: p. 19.33.


Impact of blue light filtering glasses on computer vision syndrome in radiology residents: a pilot study.

A. Dabrowiecki, A. Villalobos and E.A. Krupinski, Journal of medical imaging (Bellingham, Wash.), 2020. 7(2): p. 022402-022402. 10.1117/1.JMI.7.2.022402




Ocular and visual discomfort associated with smartphones, tablets and computers: what we do and do not know.

S. Jaiswal, L. Asper, J. Long, A. Lee, et al., Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2019. 0(0).


Tear film change and ocular symptoms after reading printed book and electronic book: a crossover study.

P. Prabhasawat, W. Pinitpuwadol, D. Angsriprasert, P. Chonpimai, et al., Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, 2019. 63(2): p. 137-144.


Visual implications of digital device usage in school children: a cross-sectional study.

P. Ichhpujani, R.B. Singh, W. Foulsham, S. Thakur, et al., BMC Ophthalmol, 2019. 19(1): p. 76-84.





Effect of Ambient Light Exposure on Ocular Fatigue during Sleep.

Y.W.N. Suh, K. H.Ahn, S. E.Oh, J., J Korean Med Sci, 2018. 33(38): p. e248.


Assessment of Dry Eye Symptoms: Current Trends and Issues of Dry Eye Questionnaires in JapanReview of Dry Eye Questionnaires.

A. Shiraishi, Yuri, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2018. 59(14): p. DES23-DES28.


Digital eye strain: prevalence, measurement and amelioration.

A.L. Sheppard, J.S. Wolffsohn, BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 2018. 3(1).


Night Light Pollution and Ocular Fatigue.

C.A.-O.X. Park, J Korean Med Sci. , 2018. 33(38): p. e257.


Management of digital eye strain.

C. Coles-Brennan, A. Sulley, G. Young, Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2018. 102(1): p. 18-29.


Ocular Tolerance of Contemporary Electronic Display Devices.

A.J.Y. Clark, P.Khaderi, K. R.Moshfeghi, A. A., Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina, 2018. 49(5): p. 346-354.


Visual function, digital behavior and the vision performance index.

S.F. Ahmed, K.C. McDermott, W.K. Burge, I.I.K. Ahmed, et al., Clinical Ophthalmology, 2018. 12: p. 2553-2561.





A review of the effects of colour and light on non-image function in humans.

S. Westland, Q. Pan and S. Lee, Coloration Technology, 2017. 133(5): p. 349-361.


The Evolving Science of Blue Light

G. Morgan, Technical White Paper, TechShieldBlue, Editor. 2017, VSP Optics Group.


Short-Wavelength Light-Blocking Eyeglasses Attenuate Symptoms of Eye Fatigue.

J.B. Lin, B.W. Gerratt, C.J. Bassi and R.S. Apte, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 2017. 58(1): p. 442-447.


The effect of blue-light blocking spectacle lenses on visual performance, macular health and the sleep-wake cycle: a systematic review of the literature.

J.G. Lawrenson, C.C. Hull and L.E. Downie, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 2017. 37(6): p. 644-654.


Smart Device Use and Perceived Physical and Psychosocial Outcomes among Hong Kong Adolescents.

S.W.H. Kwok, P.H. Lee and R.L.T. Lee, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2017. 14(2): p. 205.


Viewing distance and eyestrain symptoms with prolonged viewing of smartphones.

J. Long, R. Cheung, S. Duong, R. Paynter, L. Asper, Clin Exp Optom, 2017. 100(2): p. 133-137.


Visual Fatigue Induced by Viewing a Tablet Computer with a High-resolution Display.

D.J. Kim, C.Y. Lim, N. Gu and C.Y. Park, Korean J Ophthalmol, 2017. 31(5): p. 388-393.





Computer vision syndrome (a.k.a. digital eye strain).

M. Rosenfield, Optometry in Practice, 2016. 17(1): p. 1-10.–a-k-a–digital-eye-strain.html





Prevalence of asthenopia in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

M.A.P. Vilela, L.C. Pellanda, A.G. Fassa and V.D. Castagno, Jornal de Pediatria, 2015. 91(4): p. 320-325.


Computer Vision Syndrome: A Review of Literature.

J. Klamm and K.G. Tarnow, Medsurg Nurs. , 2015. 24(2): p. 89-93.


Computer vision syndrome: A review.

S. Gowrisankaran and J.E. Sheedy, Work, 2015. 52(2): p. 303-14.


More Screen Time = More Digital Eye Strain, Increased electronic device use has multiplied the potential stresses on the ocular system.

L. Hall and C. Coles-Brennan, in Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015. p. 38-40.





The Computer-Vision Symptom Scale (CVSS17): development and initial validation.

M. González-Pérez, R. Susi, B. Antona, A. Barrio, et al., Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2014. 55.


The Computer-Vision Syndrome: A Review.

J. Bali, N. Neeraj and R. Bali, Journal of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research, 2014. 2(1): p. 61-68.





E-Readers and Visual Fatigue.

S. Benedetto, V. Drai-Zerbib, M. Pedrotti, G. Tissier, et al., PLOS ONE, 2013. 8(12): p. e83676.





Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments.

M. Rosenfield, Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 2011. 31(502–515).





Impact of computer use on children’s vision.

N. Kozeis, Hippokratia, 2009. 13(4): p. 230-231.





Eye discomfort and work with visual display terminals.

U.O. Bergqvist and B.G. Knave, Scand J Work Environ Health, 1994. 20.

Scroll to Top