Digital Eye Strain

These studies investigate the role blue light exposure plays in digital eye strain, which affects up to 65% of people who use electronic devices regularly, causing discomfort, blurred vision and headaches.


Prevalence and risk factor assessment of digital eye strain among children using online e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Digital eye strain among kids (DESK study-1).

A. Mohan, P. Sen, C. Shah, E. Jain, et al., Indian journal of ophthalmology, 2021. 69(1): p. 140-144.


The Effect of Using Blue Light Filter Feature on Smartphones with Asthenopia Occurrence.

A.V. Wiryawan, M. Maharani, T.A. Kesoema and R. Prihatningtias, 2021, 2021. 2(1): p. 6. 10.14710/dimj.v2i1.9761




Asthenopia Among University Students: The Eye of the Digital Generation.

R.I. Touma Sawaya, N. El Meski, J.B. Saba, C. Lahoud, et al., Journal of family medicine and primary care, 2020. 9(8): p. 3921-3932. 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_340_20


Effect of Ultra-high-definition Television on Ocular Surface and Fatigue.

H. Kim, H.K. Yang, J.-M. Seo, S. Lee, et al., Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO, 2020. 34(5): p. 367-374. 10.3341/kjo.2020.0032


Digital eye strain in the era of COVID-19 pandemic: An emerging public health threat.

S. Bhattacharya, S.M. Saleem and A. Singh, Indian journal of ophthalmology, 2020. 68(8): p. 1709-1710. 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1782_20




Ocular and visual discomfort associated with smartphones, tablets and computers: what we do and do not know.

S. Jaiswal, L. Asper, J. Long, A. Lee, et al., Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2019. 0(0).


Visual implications of digital device usage in school children: a cross-sectional study.

P. Ichhpujani, R.B. Singh, W. Foulsham, S. Thakur, et al., BMC Ophthalmol, 2019. 19(1): p. 76-84.





Effect of Ambient Light Exposure on Ocular Fatigue during Sleep.

Y.W.N. Suh, K. H.Ahn, S. E.Oh, J., J Korean Med Sci, 2018. 33(38): p. e248.


Assessment of Dry Eye Symptoms: Current Trends and Issues of Dry Eye Questionnaires in JapanReview of Dry Eye Questionnaires.

A. Shiraishi, Yuri, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2018. 59(14): p. DES23-DES28.


Digital eye strain: prevalence, measurement and amelioration.

A.L. Sheppard, J.S. Wolffsohn, BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 2018. 3(1).


Night Light Pollution and Ocular Fatigue.

C.A.-O.X. Park, J Korean Med Sci. , 2018. 33(38): p. e257.


Management of digital eye strain.

C. Coles-Brennan, A. Sulley, G. Young, Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2018. 102(1): p. 18-29.


Visual function, digital behavior and the vision performance index.

S.F. Ahmed, K.C. McDermott, W.K. Burge, I.I.K. Ahmed, et al., Clinical Ophthalmology, 2018. 12: p. 2553-2561.





The Evolving Science of Blue Light

G. Morgan, Technical White Paper, TechShieldBlue, Editor. 2017, VSP Optics Group.


Viewing distance and eyestrain symptoms with prolonged viewing of smartphones.

J. Long, R. Cheung, S. Duong, R. Paynter, L. Asper, Clin Exp Optom, 2017. 100(2): p. 133-137.


Visual Fatigue Induced by Viewing a Tablet Computer with a High-resolution Display.

D.J. Kim, C.Y. Lim, N. Gu and C.Y. Park, Korean J Ophthalmol, 2017. 31(5): p. 388-393.





Computer vision syndrome (a.k.a. digital eye strain).

M. Rosenfield, Optometry in Practice, 2016. 17(1): p. 1-10.–a-k-a–digital-eye-strain.html





Prevalence of asthenopia in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

M.A.P. Vilela, L.C. Pellanda, A.G. Fassa and V.D. Castagno, Jornal de Pediatria, 2015. 91(4): p. 320-325.


Computer Vision Syndrome: A Review of Literature.

J. Klamm and K.G. Tarnow, Medsurg Nurs. , 2015. 24(2): p. 89-93.


Computer vision syndrome: A review.

S. Gowrisankaran and J.E. Sheedy, Work, 2015. 52(2): p. 303-14.


More Screen Time = More Digital Eye Strain, Increased electronic device use has multiplied the potential stresses on the ocular system.

L. Hall and C. Coles-Brennan, in Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015. p. 38-40.





The Computer-Vision Symptom Scale (CVSS17): development and initial validation.

M. González-Pérez, R. Susi, B. Antona, A. Barrio, et al., Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2014. 55.


The Computer-Vision Syndrome: A Review.

J. Bali, N. Neeraj and R. Bali, Journal of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research, 2014. 2(1): p. 61-68.






Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments.

M. Rosenfield, Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 2011. 31(502–515).





Impact of computer use on children’s vision.

N. Kozeis, Hippokratia, 2009. 13(4): p. 230-231.





Eye discomfort and work with visual display terminals.

U.O. Bergqvist and B.G. Knave, Scand J Work Environ Health, 1994. 20.