Digital Eye Strain

These studies investigate the role blue light exposure plays in digital eye strain, which affects up to 65% of people who use electronic devices regularly, causing discomfort, blurred vision and headaches.




Ocular and visual discomfort associated with smartphones, tablets and computers: what we do and do not know.

S. Jaiswal, L. Asper, J. Long, A. Lee, et al., Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2019. 0(0).


Visual implications of digital device usage in school children: a cross-sectional study.

P. Ichhpujani, R.B. Singh, W. Foulsham, S. Thakur, et al., BMC Ophthalmol, 2019. 19(1): p. 76-84.





Effect of Ambient Light Exposure on Ocular Fatigue during Sleep.

Y.W.N. Suh, K. H.Ahn, S. E.Oh, J., J Korean Med Sci, 2018. 33(38): p. e248.


Assessment of Dry Eye Symptoms: Current Trends and Issues of Dry Eye Questionnaires in JapanReview of Dry Eye Questionnaires.

A. Shiraishi, Yuri, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2018. 59(14): p. DES23-DES28.


Digital eye strain: prevalence, measurement and amelioration.

A.L. Sheppard, J.S. Wolffsohn, BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 2018. 3(1).


Night Light Pollution and Ocular Fatigue.

C.A.-O.X. Park, J Korean Med Sci. , 2018. 33(38): p. e257.


Management of digital eye strain.

C. Coles-Brennan, A. Sulley, G. Young, Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2018. 102(1): p. 18-29.


Visual function, digital behavior and the vision performance index.

S.F. Ahmed, K.C. McDermott, W.K. Burge, I.I.K. Ahmed, et al., Clinical Ophthalmology, 2018. 12: p. 2553-2561.





The Evolving Science of Blue Light

G. Morgan, Technical White Paper, TechShieldBlue, Editor. 2017, VSP Optics Group.


Viewing distance and eyestrain symptoms with prolonged viewing of smartphones.

J. Long, R. Cheung, S. Duong, R. Paynter, L. Asper, Clin Exp Optom, 2017. 100(2): p. 133-137.


Visual Fatigue Induced by Viewing a Tablet Computer with a High-resolution Display.

D.J. Kim, C.Y. Lim, N. Gu and C.Y. Park, Korean J Ophthalmol, 2017. 31(5): p. 388-393.





Computer vision syndrome (a.k.a. digital eye strain).

M. Rosenfield, Optometry in Practice, 2016. 17(1): p. 1-10.–a-k-a–digital-eye-strain.html





Prevalence of asthenopia in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

M.A.P. Vilela, L.C. Pellanda, A.G. Fassa and V.D. Castagno, Jornal de Pediatria, 2015. 91(4): p. 320-325.


Computer Vision Syndrome: A Review of Literature.

J. Klamm and K.G. Tarnow, Medsurg Nurs. , 2015. 24(2): p. 89-93.


Computer vision syndrome: A review.

S. Gowrisankaran and J.E. Sheedy, Work, 2015. 52(2): p. 303-14.


More Screen Time = More Digital Eye Strain, Increased electronic device use has multiplied the potential stresses on the ocular system.

L. Hall and C. Coles-Brennan, in Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015. p. 38-40.





The Computer-Vision Symptom Scale (CVSS17): development and initial validation.

M. González-Pérez, R. Susi, B. Antona, A. Barrio, et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2014. 55.




Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments.

M. Rosenfield, Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 2011. 31(502–515).





Impact of computer use on children’s vision.

N. Kozeis, Hippokratia, 2009. 13(4): p. 230-231.





Eye discomfort and work with visual display terminals.

U.O. Bergqvist and B.G. Knave, Scand J Work Environ Health, 1994. 20.